Release Note 2016



Welcome to WEST Release 2016. In this Release Note you will find information about new features of WEST, and what you need to know in order to install and get started with Release 2016.

WEST 2016 is the fourth release of the re-designed and re-engineered version of WEST, the powerful and user-friendly tool for dynamic modelling and simulation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and integrated urban water system (IUWS). The extensive state-of-the art model library of WEST enables one to model and evaluate almost any kind of modern WWTP and a variety of IUWS systems.

WEST 2016 comes in four different flavors:

Previous versions of WEST

Projects created with WEST 2011 / 2012 / 2014 can be opened in WEST 2016 without any further ado. Projects created in WEST 3.7.6 must first be converted through the WEST3 Conversion Tool, which was included in the WEST 2011 / 2012 / 2014 installations, but has been excluded from the 2016 installer. Projects created with WEST versions prior to 3.7.6 are not supported by the WEST3 Conversion Tool. It is also not possible to open WEST 2016 projects in WEST 2011 / 2012 / 2014.

System requirements

The recommended minimum system requirements are:

Operating systems Fully supported operating systems *
Windows 7 Professional Service Pack 1 (32 and 64 bit), Windows 8.1 Pro (64 bit), Windows 10 Pro (64 bit) and Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard (64 bit).

Non-supported but partially tested operating systems **
Windows 8.1 Pro (32 bit), Windows 10 Pro (32 bit) and Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard Service Pack 1 (64 bit).
Note that Release 2016 is the last release supporting 32 bit operating systems.
Processor x86 or x64, 2.2 GHz (or higher)
Memory (RAM) 2 GB (or higher)
Hard disk 40 GB (or higher)
Monitor SVGA, resolution 1024x768 in 16 bit colour
Graphics adapter 64 MB RAM (256 MB RAM or higher recommended), 24 bit true colour
File system NTFS
Software requirements .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 and .NET Framework 4.0 (Full Profile)

* Fully supported operating systems are systems that have been tested in accordance with MIKE's Quality Assurance procedures and where warranty and software maintenance agreement conditions apply.

** Non-supported but partially tested operating systems are systems, which are not officially supported by the MIKE software products. These operating systems have only undergone very limited testing for the purpose of MIKE software, but the software and key features are likely to work. Installation of MIKE software on a non-supported operating system is done so at the user's own risk. The MIKE software warranty and software maintenance agreement conditions do not apply for unsupported operating systems and DHI is under no obligation to provide assistance or troubleshooting for cases where the software is being used on a non-supported operating system.

Please note that single user installations are not allowed on server operating systems. Also, when running a fully supported operating system as a 'guest operating system' on a virtualisation platform, it is automatically downgraded to a non-supported operating system under the conditions provided above.


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To install WEST, please choose WEST 2016 in the ‘MIKE Setup’ dialogue box that appears when inserting the MIKE 2016 USB and clicking the Setup.exe or executing the Setup.exe file from the downloaded installation files. Press the ‘Install’ button to begin installation.

Licence file and dongle

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To use WEST in licenced mode, please follow these steps:

  1. You can retrieve the MIKE software licence file (DhiLicense.dat) via the Internet. This requires a working Internet connection and a valid e-mail address. The licence file can be retrieved in two ways:
    • During installation of the MIKE software
    • After installation of the MIKE software, by launching the DHI License Updater through the Windows Start menu
  2. To retrieve your licence file during installation of MIKE software, select ‘Local’ when prompted to ‘Select license type’. In the following dialogue box, select ‘Internet’. At the end of the installation process, you will be prompted to insert your DHI dongle. Insert the dongle and follow the on-screen instructions.
  3. To update your licence file using the License Updater, simply launch the DHI License Updater and follow the on-screen instructions. On Windows 8, search for DHI License Updater.
  4. Alternatively, the licence file can simply be copied to the \Program files\DHI\2016\License or Program files(x86)\DHI\2016\License directory.
  5. After completed installation, you should ensure that your hardware key is attached to the system.

Product invocation

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Launch 'WEST' from the Windows Start menu.


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For general support, please see our FAQ.

If you experience any difficulties, or if you have any questions, you can contact Client Care by mail, e-mail, phone or fax:

Client Care
Agern Allé 5
DK-2970 Hørsholm
Tel: +45 4516 9333
Fax: +45 4516 9292

Or you can find your local Client Care with support in your local language here.

How to run WEST in other languages than English

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The desired language can be selected through the Options dialogue in the Application Menu. The language dropdown box is part of the Popular category. Note that the newly selected language will one take effect after restarting the WEST application.

New features

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Every new release of WEST consists of new modules, new features or corrections to problems or significant inconsistencies discovered in previous releases. Please find short descriptions of the most significant new and exiting features in Release 2016 below.



New feature


  • 64-bit Installer

    Important note: Contrary to the 32-bit installer, the 64-bit installer does NOT include a C compiler. As the availability of a C compiler is essential for WEST to be able to generate executable models, the 64-bit version of WEST should only be installed on machines that also have a working C compiler, capable of generating 64-bit binaries. A straightforward option is to install the Visual Studio Community C compiler, as follows:

    • Download Visual Studio Community, e.g. from
    • Perform a custom installation, with only VC activated
    • After installation of WEST, edit "C:\Users\Public\Public Documents\DHI\WEST\bin\WESTStart.bat" (or similar)
    • Add the following (or similar) at the top of the file:
      CALL "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC\bin\amd64\vcvars64.bat"
      Mind the use of "CALL" and quoting of the path
    • Optionally, if faster compilation at the expense of slower simulation is desired, add the following to WESTStart.bat:
    • Save WESTStart.bat and start WEST

    If there is no real need for using the 64-bit installer (such as the ability to address more than 4Gb of memory), one is advised to use the 32-bit installer (even on a 64-bit operating system), as it includes a C compiler and therefore has a much more straightforward installation process.


New plot types:

  • Timeseries / Fast Line
  • Current Value / Line
  • Current Value / Fast Line
  • Current Value / Surface
  • Current Value / Color Grid
  • Y(X) / Fast Line
  • Z(X,Y) / Color Grid

New widget types:

  • Output / Gauge
  • Output / Radiobutton
  • Output / Checkbox
  • Output / Combobox


  • Copy Plot Image to Clipboard
  • Copy Table to Clipboard
  • Improved Accessibility of Plot Header & Footer Properties
  • Clear All & Refresh for Tables
  • Clear All in View Menu
  • Ability to Edit Plot Labels
  • Ability to Select Display Unit
  • Design Mode for Individual Panes
  • Ability to Hide Pane Captions
  • Add Output Field and Gauge through Menu
  • Output Field and Gauge from File
  • Add Input Field, Slider, Radiobutton, Checkbox and Combobox through Menu
  • Plot Series Bands
  • Plot Scroll Pager


  • Copy Image to Clipboard
  • Merge Layers
  • Easy Insertion of Quantity Names in Calculator Variables
  • Full Screen View
  • Automatic Insertion of Loop Breakers
  • Hierarchical Modeling
  • Align to Grid
  • Drop Block on Connection
  • Remove Block without Removing Connection
  • Drop Block on Existing Block


  • Buffer Output Channel Configuration
  • Number of Communication Points for Output
  • Slave Steady-state Experiment
  • Multiple Output Files
  • Check Bounds & Stop When Bounds Violation Flags
  • Real-time Simulation

Objective Evaluation

New criteria:

  • Skewness
  • Kurtosis
  • Moment
  • MeanWeighted
  • StdDevWeighted
  • IntWeighted
  • 2nd Percentile Pair


  • Output File
  • Range Track Bar for Percentiles
  • Constraints for Criteria


  • Line Color
  • Line Thickness
  • Labels
  • Alerts


  • Default Block Label Font & Size Configuration
  • Visualization Interval Configuration

Influent / Effluent / Input / Output

  • Extrapolated Flag
  • Persistency of Custom Components
  • Introduction of VectorInput and VectorOutput Blocks


  • Optional Inclusion of Solver Properties
  • Optional Inclusion of Analysis Results
  • Optional Inclusion of Field Panes

Block Summary

  • Custom Favorites
  • Drag/Drop to Dashboard and Analysis Dialog
  • Ability to Select Display Unit

Getting Started

  • Sort Projects on Time
  • Edit Project Description
  • Folder for Generator Projects

Model Explorer

  • Copy / Paste Values
  • Reset Values

Uncertainty Analysis

  • Series Bands in Standard Aggregated Plots

Parameter Estimation

  • NLOpt Solver Library


  • Select File Dialog Consistently Used
  • Extended Support for Excel in Select File Dialog
  • Support for DFS0 in Select File Dialog
  • 64-bit Version
  • Ability to Address 4Gb in 32-bit Version
  • Support Email Address in About Box & Help Menu
  • New Look-and-Feels
  • Cascade Floating Windows

Model Editor

  • Entirely re-written
  • Multiple Categories per Instance
  • Multiple Conversion Models per Category
  • Multiple Simultaneous Instance Explorer Windows
  • Multiple Simultaneous Conversion Model Windows
  • Powerful Copy / Paste
  • Lazy Loading of Model Library Information
  • Symbolic Continuity Check
  • Model Library File & Folder Management
  • Flexible Conversion Model Import

Block Editor

  • Ability to Order Palettes and Icons
  • Icon Terminal Description

Data Editor

  • Objective Evaluation

MSLU Library

  • Packaged as DLL
  • Bridge to PHREEQC
  • MSLUExec / MSLUSleep / MSLUTimer

Model Library

Overall library structure:

  • The whole structure of the library has been revised to accommodate some IUWS extensions; and to exploit the ability that WEST 2016 now has to support multiple categories per instance:

    • Some general files are located inside the "Models" folder
    • All other files are located inside the "WWTP" sub-folder, organised more or less as in 2014 i.e. one sub-folder per block
    • The files pertaining to each category implementation are stored in sub-folders called after the category
    • The 2014 definitions.msl file is now split over definitions.msl (components only) and reactions.msl (processes only)
    • The entire conversion model was implemented through the new Gujer Matrix Editor, so: the body will look different from 2014 + one should not manually modify these files
    • ADM1 and Siegrist have now become (sub)categories of the ASM1Temp instance
    • UCTAD and pHAlk (formerly Stream) have now become (sub)categories of the PWM_SA instance
    • a new category (and instance) was added, ASM2dM: a derivation of ASM2dModTemp for accurate tracking of solids (incl. inerts)
    • Kosim1 and RM1 have now been explicited as categories in the scope of IUWS

Overall clean-up of the MSL Code:

  • For instance: many data types that were either never used or too specialised (e.g. MaxUptakeRateForHeterotrophic, ..) have been removed; some classes have been re-derived in order to allow for more flexible inheritance.

New unit process models:

  • CEPT settling system: Takacs and small satellite models
  • Base disinfection model
  • PI and PID with saturation and anti-windup
  • Thickener with Dry Solids as input
  • Oxidation ditch (coupled model with 4 tanks in series)
  • Centrifugal pump with throttling- or VFD control

New synthetic influent generator sample projects:

  • Catchment generator
  • Dry-weather flow generator

Known defects and workarounds

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No known defects or workarounds

Fixed issues

A service pack includes fixes to inconveniences and errors and minor modifications to the official release.
Please note that the service packs are accumulative, i.e. corrections and fixes released with a previous service pack are included in the newest service pack as well. 

Release 2016 Service Pack 3
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Error/Inconvenience/New feature



  • Tornado.Exp.ObjBuffer missing in for all products
  • Tornado.Exp.Seq missing in for WESTforAUTOMATION
  • Tornado.Interface.MEX missing in for all products


Exception: Input string was not in a correct format

Block Library

Error in rate expression of StorageOfXPHA: Missing factor state.C[X_PAO]


Windows stuck when block with Analysis Variables is removed


Save merged influent file without influent model gives exception

Calculator Variables

Exception: Object reference not set


Exception: Format problem when running experiment

Block Details

Exception when changing parameter value


Exception when NaN in Calculator Variable expression


Change of ClassName removes all parameter links

Release 2016 Service Pack 2
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Error/Inconvenience/New feature



  • All animation suddenly disappears
  • Lookup table: Decimal values don't work when comma is decimal separator

Block Library

  • Couple pK factors in ADM1 (and transformers)
  • ASM1-ADM1 transformers available as independent blocks which allows for (more efficient) set up of series of digesters
  • Thickener model with Dry Solids as manipulated variable should be default class
  • OTR_Energy to be defined as manipulated variable which thus can vary dynamically
  • In the scope of the fine bubble aeration model (Irvine), move some computed parameters to the initial section
  • In the scope of the fine bubble aeration model (Irvine), kLa to be protected from division-by-zero (NAN)
  • In the scope of the ADM1 model, sludge age to be calculated as state variable
  • The oxydation ditch model to be restricted to the WEST base instances and not to be automatically available for custom instances
  • In the scope of the MBR model, two derived state variables to be initialised to zero
  • Sentinel to be added to the root file
  • In the MultiSensor model, parameter F_TSS_COD only to be visible for instances that need it

Block Library Setup

Modified settings are lost next time the dialog is opened

Block Details

In case of NaN values, do not display a warning message in the Logging window


  • Output Fields: Exception when value is + or - largest representable double
  • Plot: Stacked column does not display nicely
  • Series icon for non-quantity series is undefined
  • Table: Column sorting seems to happen lexicograhically instead of numerically
  • Table: Sorting that has been activated on a column cannot be switched off


All WEST applications have "64 bit" in their title bars

Influent / Input

  • Removing Time Series In files generates a null reference exception
  • Times series in Excel files cannot be flagged as reference time base
  • Time unit of output file after application of merged input file to input model should be the same as the one of the merged input file
  • Data import from Excel files does not work due to missing 3rd party DLL


  • After changing Block Library, select default models if necessary / possible
  • Block replace through drag / drop: Link behind connections is often not properly taken care of
  • Block replace through drag / drop: Values of sub-blocks are not maintained
  • Interface Links Dialog: 1st record created by default is confusing
  • Interface Links Dialog: Filtering missing in From
  • Interface Links Dialog: Filtering of valid alternatives to take place on direct typing in, not only through drop-down

Model Editor

  • Block Library Explorer: Double-click doesn't always respond
  • Changing font size through Options leads to incorrect syntax coloring in Conversion Model Editor / Model tab
  • Clear Errors list automatically
  • Conversion Model Parameters and State Variables: Remove "Manipulated" column
  • Conversion Model Editor grids: Copy/paste of rows sometimes stops working
  • Errors Window: double-click in empty window yields object reference exception
  • Exception after code generation and auto-reload of

Model Explorer

Reposition view on the basis of the selected block in the Layout


  • Executable model rebuild should not be forced by non-essential changes in the layout
  • Unnecessary save confirmation dialog sometimes


Updated translations for Chinese, German, Japanese, Polish and Russian


  • BVDF & Classification: Criteria: Sample, Standard and Order properties are missing
  • Statistics: Incorrect interval when Simulation Output is set to Number of Values

Release 2016 Service Pack 1
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